Hash tables have slightly changed between OCaml 3.12.1 and OCaml 4.00.0. While some care has been taken for forward compatibility, you might encounter strange behaviors if you accidentally try to backport a hash table.
Here are two snippets of code:
(* dump.ml *) let _ = let h = Hashtbl.create 2 in Hashtbl.add h 23l "Hello"; Hashtbl.add h 42l "World"; let oc = open_out_bin "dump" in output_value oc h; close_out oc
(* read.ml *) let _ = let ic = open_in_bin "dump" in let h = (input_value ic: (int32, string) Hashtbl.t) in Printf.printf "iter\n%!"; Hashtbl.iter (fun k v -> Printf.printf "%ld -> %s\n" k v) h; Printf.printf "find\n%!"; let s1 = Hashtbl.find h 23l in let s2 = Hashtbl.find h 42l in Printf.printf "print\n%!"; Printf.printf "%s %s!\n" s1 s2; close_in ic
Now, here is the output I got from running
$ ./read iter 42 -> World 23 -> Hello find Fatal error: exception Not_found
What kind of sorcery is this!?
The problem is: I work on two machines, one of which is not mine, and quite
hostile. Therefore, instead of building my whole compiling environment on it, I
just hacked my path to point to the ocaml build directory of my boss.
(of course, I only presented here a simplification of it) has to be run on this
machine, because it has a PowerPC architecture, which is useful in this
project. However, I run
read on my own machine, because it's much simpler.
Both used to run OCaml 3.12.1, since the project can't be built under 4.00.
However, one day, the boss updated OCaml on the PowerPC machine to 4.00. After
that, I re-ran
dump, oblivious to that change, and then was a bit puzzled by
read's output! («It used to work!»™)
So, why does
Hashtbl.iter behave well, while
Hashtbl.find can't find the
keys? It's just that
iter browses through the buckets, ignoring the hash
function entirely, while
find hashes the key, and looks into the bucket for
that particular hash. Since the hash function changed, but not the underlying
representation of hash tables,
iter succeeds while
Conclusion: Beware when dealing with serialized data structures among heterogeneous environments. Well, we already knew that, didn't we? :-)